The Kellerberg takes its name from the Kellerschlössl in Dürnstein. The name is therefore also relatively new (1787), and was apparently introduced as a collective name for a multitude of smaller vineyards, two of which are still preserved and are used as sub-vineyards today.
The Kellerberg is composed of Gföhl gneiss, a metamorphic rock that was transformed from a granitic parent rock (plutonite).
Due to the south-east orientation of the Kellerberg, the vineyards faced away from the westerlies during the glaciations. This resulted in deeper loess deposits than on the slopes facing west. Loess can still be found in patches on the Kellerberg. Erosion on the slopes caused mixing of the glacial sediments with Gföhl gneiss material. This is reflected in the denser wines produced on the Kellerberg.